tulsidas Biography : Tulsi Das ka Jeevan Parichay Rachnayen(Biography and compositions of Tulsidas) & About Tulsidas – Life Character of Goswami Tulsidasji.
Tulsidas Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline
- Name – Tulsidas, Childhood name – Ram Bola
- Born – 1532 AD, 1589 Vikram Samvat
- Location Town Rajapur District Banda (U.P.)
- Died – Samvat 1680
- Father- Atmaram
- Mother – Hulsi Bai
- Wife – Ratanwali
- Krishna Geetavali
- Parvati Mars
- Ramcharit Manas
- Vinay Patrika
About Tulsidas – Life Character of Goswami Tulsidasji
The most authentic form of the life character of Goswami Tulsidasji can be given only on the basis of intuition. Many utterances related to his life are found in his works which prove the facts related to his life.
Goswamiji was born in 1532 AD. That is, in 1589 Vikram Samvat, the town was born in Rajapur (District-Banda).
Tulsidasji’s father’s name was Pandit Atmaram and mother’s name was Hulsi.
Although the name of the father is not found in any of his works, but the mention of the mother is found in his works – ‘Ramhi dear holy Tulsi Si. Tulsidas Hithiyya Hulsi c. This clearly means that the story of Rama is like the heart of Mother Hulsi for Tulsi.
|Date of Birth||13 August 1532|
|Birth Day||13 August|
|Age||91 years old|
As many as three places are mentioned as his birthplace, most scholars identify the place with Soron, a town of Kasganj district, Uttar Pradesh.
|Birth City||a town of Kasganj district|
|Also Known for||Poet|
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Tulsidas’s mother’s name Hulsi is also found in many external evidences.
There is also a famous legend about him that he was born in Abhukt Mool Nakshatra. Therefore, his astrologer father Atmaram, considering him inauspicious at birth, handed him over to the maid. The anger of his father became even more natural when his mother died of labor pain while giving birth to him.
Tulsidas’ childhood name was Rambola. According to certain biographies and legends, he had uttered the name Ram as soon as he was born, that is why he was named Rambola.
When he grew up, when he went to the shelter of Baba Narhari, Baba Narharidas named him Tulsidas after seeing Tulsi leaves lying on his head while sleeping under the Tulsi plant.
He has mentioned both the names in his works.
- Ram ko slave name Rambola Rakhyo Ram.
- Kalpataru Kali Kalyan Niwas to Ram Naam
Jo sumirat bhayo bhog te tulsi Tulsidas ||
- Tulsidas’s marriage to Ratnavali and change in Tulsi’s life
- According to tradition, Goswami went to Kashi in his youth after receiving the education of Sanskrit language and various scriptures. Impressed by his scholarship, a Brahmin from a nearby village married his daughter Ratnavali to him.
- According to public opinion, he had a special fascination with Ratnavali. So much so that once Ratnavali went to his maternal home in his absence without informing him, he became very distraught at her separation and reached Ratnavali’s village by crossing the flooded river in the middle of the night.
- There, frightened by the sarcasm being made by the in-laws, he did not enter the house through the straight path, but grabbed the rope hanging on the balcony of the house and reached Ratnavali’s room above.
- Ratnavali was surprised to see them at that time and was stunned to know the means of coming, because the one who had come up thinking this rope was a snake. This was the culmination of Tulsidas ji’s lust.
At that time Ratnavali reprimanded him a lot and said-
‘अस्थि चर्ममय देह मम तासो ऐसी प्रीति।
जो होती श्रीराम मेंह होती न तौ भवभीति।। .
It is said that Tulsidasji’s infatuated mind became detached from worldly attractions only after this rebuke by his wife and he became absorbed in Rambhakti. In his old age, he once had to face a terrible muscle-pain, which is mentioned in the poem, ‘Hanuman’ arm has been written only for the mitigation of this pain. The feeling of pain was so intense that they say
“पाव पीर, पेर पीर, बाहु पीर मुँह पीर।
जरजर सकल शरीर पीर भई है । “
But even then he did not get distracted and continued to worship Ram. Tolerant, humble and a firm believer, true devotee Goswami Tulsidas had achieved in his lifetime itself. Finally, in Samvat 1680, he left his physical body on the seventh day of Shukla Paksha of Sawan month on the banks of river Ganga. The following couplet is also found in this subject –
संवत सोलह सौ असी, असी गंग के तीर।
श्रावन शुक्ला सप्तमी तुलसी तज्यो शरीर।।
creations of Tulsidas
Goswami Tulsidasji was the poet of ‘Lokmanas’. Its knowledge is obtained only by observing the subject matter of his compositions. Goswamiji composed a total of 12 (twelve) texts, small and big. A brief introduction of these works is as follows
1. Ramlala Nachhu-
- Ramlala Nahchu has been written aiming at the festival of Nahchu, which is to be held before the Yagyopavitotsav of Rama.
- In this rite, before the Yagyopaveet, the nails of the child’s feet are cut by the nines and Mahavar is applied. Its creation date is Samvat 1611.
- Its language is Awadhi and it is a short block poem.
2. Vairagya Sandipani-
- In this Vritti, instructions have been given to describe the nature of saints, glorify the characteristics of saints, qualities of true saints, rendering of detachment and attainment of peace. Its composition period is 1614.
- Its language is Awadhi mixed Brajbhasha.
3. Ramagya Question –
- Along with the story of all the cases of Ramagya question, omens and bad omen have been considered.
- So that a person not only gets the knowledge of the upcoming pleasures, but also knows the bad ones and tries to get rid of them.
- It was composed in Samvat 1621.
- Its language is Braj.
4. Janaki Mangal-
- The theme of Janaki Mangal is the marriage of Sita-Ram. This is a Khandakavya composed in Samvat 1627. Its language is Eastern Awadhi.
5. Ramcharit Manas
- Ramcharit Manas is the most famous book of Goswami Tulsidas ji, which also holds the place of religious text of Hindus. Through Ramcharit, Tulsidas ji has given place to the welfare of the people.
- Its date of creation is Samvat 1631. Its language is Awadhi.
6. Parvati Mars
- Parvati Mangal is a block poem and the marriage of Shiva and Parvati is its subject matter.
- It describes the story of Parvati ji from birth to marriage. It was probably composed in Samvat 1643.
- Its language is typical of Eastern Awadhi.
- Geetavali – Gitavali is a Gita poem divided into seven kandas. Like Manas, the entire Ram story is described in this way. It was probably composed in 1653 and its language is Braj.
8. Krishna Geetavali –
- Krishna Geetavali contains verses related to the pastimes of Krishna, in which most of the verses related to Bhramar Geet.
- Its language is Braj and its composition is considered to be the period of 1658.
9. Barvai Ramayana-
- In ‘Barvai Samayan’ also, the story of Rama is divided into seven kandas.
- This is a collection of Sphut Barvai verses. There is predominance of makeup and devotional rasa.
- The verses written between Samvat 1661 and Samvat 1660 have been collected in it and its language is Awadhi.
10. Dohavali –
- There is a collection of Dohavali, Doho and Sorath.
- In this, there are couplets of subjects related to devotion, policy, religion, ethics, customs, ethics, knowledge and dispassion, Ramnaam Mahatmya, Jiva, Maya, Kaal, Jag, knowledge.
- Its composition is believed to be from 1674 to 1660 era and its language is Braj.
11. Kavitavali –
- Kavitavali is a collection of poems.
- In this, the entire story is described in seven Kands like Balkand- Ayodhyakand, Aranyakand, Kishkindhakand, Sunderkand, Lankakand and Uttarkand.
- Its Uttarkand has special significance from the point of view of Kaliyuga description.
12. Vinay Patrika –
- Vinay Patrika is considered to be the last work of Goswami. In this is the post of his personal persuasion.
- It is written in the form of a petition.
- Tulsidas ji requests all the members of the Ram family to ask Ram to take Tulsi in his shelter. Not only to the Ram family, but also to various deities and especially Hanuman, they pray this.
- Its creation period is also considered to be in the middle of Samvat.
- Its language is Braj.
Tulsi Das Ramchit Manas Ethics
Tulsi Das Bhakti Bhavana – Ramcharit Manas and Ethics
devotional spirit of tulsi das
The era of Tulsi was the era of individual movement. The condition of the country was such that the depressed people were not looking for any other support other than God.
There were two classes of devotees in the society, which were formed on the basis of source of devotion, form of worship, spiritual practice etc.
One class belonged to the Saguna Bhakti stream, which had two major branches, the Ramabhakti branch and the Krishna Bhakti branch, and the other class was to the Nirguna Bhakti stream, which had two major branches – the Gyanmargi branch and the Premmargi language.
Gyanmargi branch is known as Sant Kavyadhara and while recognizing Premmargi branch as Sufi poetic stream, he presented the ideal of devotion to Maryada Purushottam Rama.
He realized that the teaching of Nirguna Brahman is useless for a directionless confused society.
He adopted the means of devotion to Maryada Purushottam Ram to bring the directionless society on the path and gave public auspicious sermons.
He realized that the distressed society does not need any nirguna Brahman, but a virtuous embodied God, who listens to the calls of the afflicted, reaches immediately and protects them, destroys unrighteousness and establishes religion.
The public is expected to have the support of Lokrakshak Varnashram-Dharmapalak Maryada Purushottam Ram. Therefore Tulsidas ji did devotion to Rama.
Eternal original consciousness in Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharit Manas, the embodiment of strength, modesty, beauty, has been expressed in Ramcharitmanas, the feeling of establishing dignity and sticking firmly to its practical form.
The sweet ideals of family, social and political life and the spirit of sacrifice are scattered everywhere in ‘Ramcharitmanas’.
Tulsi’s poetic consciousness is a combination of life values and human values, and this value representation is inspired by the lofty values and ideals of morality of Indian culture.
In this devotional poetry, moral values like duty, devotion, courtesy, good conduct, diligence, sincerity, gratitude, truthfulness, justice, compassion, equality, forgiveness etc.
The scope of life values in Ramcharitmanas is not limited. They have a global vision. Wishing for the welfare of mankind.
Life values, free from the shackles of place, time, can prove to be helpful and guide in establishing a healthy society and welfare politics.
In Ramcharit Manas, religious, philosophical, social and political values of life have been beautifully represented.
The purpose of religion is to lead man towards self-promotion by showing the path of auspiciousness and Shivatva.
For this tenacity and sacrifice are necessary. Many utterances telling the importance of austerity are found in Ramcharitmanas like-
तपु सुखप्रद दुख दोष नसावा।
तप के अगम न कुछ संसार।
Tulsidas ji has depicted Valmiki, Atri, Bharadwaj, Narada, etc. as austere, to represent the importance of austerity.
The illustrative example of renunciation is this – brothers – Rama, Lakshmana and Bharata.
Rama who becomes a Chakravarti becomes a forest dweller. Lakshmana, sacrificing his marital happiness, adopts the path of fraternal service, and in the kingdom attained in the Bharat Mahal, considering Lakshmi as Trinavat, he sets out to find his brother.
Tulsidas while appreciating this sacrificing personality of India has said-
चलत पयादे खात फल, पिता दीन्ह तजि राजु ।
जात मनावन रघुवंरहि, भरत सरसि को आजु ।।
Considering truth as synonymous with religion, Tulsidas says-
“धरमु न दूसर सत्य समाना”
Similarly, while expressing the spirit of benevolence and non-violence, he says-
“परहित सरिस धर्म नहीं भाई पर पीड़ा सम नहिं अधमाई । “
In ‘Ramcharitmanas’, Tulsidas ji has also given a detailed representation of the political values.
In ‘Ramcharitmanas’, Tulsi has depicted the then Mughal administration system in the form of description of Kali Yuga in Uttarkand.
He has described the dignity of Dasharatha’s governance in the form of a nuptantra, and on the other hand has described the governance of philosophers like Janak and the tyrant emperor. But Tulsidas is a supporter of Ram’s rule and opposed to Ravana’s rule.
Tulsi considered the king as the representative of the people. Even while accepting the paramount power of the king, they have not accepted his autocracy as right.
He has considered the same ruler as the true ruler, who considers the position to be the service of the subjects.
‘Ramcharit Manas’ is a fertile land of those ideals, by adopting which the subjects of any age can do spiritual practice for their welfare. By the way, apart from Ramcharitmanas, the description of Ramrajya is found in other texts like Bhagwat Mahapuran, Padmapuran etc.
But in the ‘Uttar-Kand’ of ‘Ramcharitmanas’, Tulsi has envisaged Ram-rajya or welfare state – the message of mutual affection, self-righteousness, righteousness and self-exaltation, intimacy and respect for the subjects and entry, loving and ethical marriage.
Satisfying environment of life, generosity and benevolence, worship, welfare and surajya are the characteristics of that righteous state of welfare.
This depiction of Ram Rajya is accompanied by the concept of Tulsi’s ideal or welfare state.
Current relevance of Tulsidas
In the context of the present relevance of Tulsidas, ‘Yugeshwar’ says that the sublime character which is required for the emotional unity of the state is in the Ramayana.
Ram Charit Manas is such a gateway where the entire Indian spiritual practice and knowledge tradition is visible.
It (in the mind) has a wonderful ability to give support and message to the troubled, sad and broken hearts from the country. Even today, it is the support of crores of minds.
Accepting the message of ‘Ramcharit Manas’ limited to India only would be an injustice to this great book. ‘Ramcharit Manas’ is Yugvani. Such a special epic of the world, which gives the message of upward-looking life-view and behavior and world religion even in modern times.
Ramcharitmanas is a treasure trove of empirical knowledge.