# Digital Computer Types, Top 10+ Advantages, Classification and Components

digital computer – What is Digital Computer? : Friends, today in this post, I have described in detail about Digital Computer, in which what is Digital Computer, Types of Digital Computer, Features of Digital Computer, Classification of Computer and History of Computer. ? We have shared the information of subjects etc., so let’s start and first of all know that, What Are Digital Computers & type of digital computer?

If you want to know in detail about computer then what is computer? You can read this post of (What Is Computer?). You must have heard mostly about PC (Personal Computer) or computer system, but people who work with computer systems, they must have known about different types of computers. These digital computers are also one of those computers.

## Digital computer | Evolution, Components, & Features – What is Digital Computer?

Contents

Digital Computer Meaning – Digital computer is that digital system that performs many different types of computational tasks.

The word digital means to represent information in a computer by variables, which are limited numbers and the word computer means computer or calculation, so in common parlance it is considered a calculating device.

The details given as input in a digital computer are called data.

The output result obtained from a digital computer is often called information or information.

A digital computer takes input data, processes it, then displays the information or result on an output device.

In the present time, the definition of computer has changed because now the use of computer is not limited to just doing calculations but it is also being used very easily in many other fields like video, music, graphics, internet works etc. Hence it is now called an electronic device.

Digital computer is used all over the world and it is a very powerful device and is the most used electronic device.

It is a machine or device that processes any kind of data information by converting it into machine language. Through this device, whenever we input some data in the computer, it gives us the output within a few seconds.

Digital computers use the binary number system, which consists of two digits – 0 and 1. The smallest unit of data in a computer is a bit. A Binary Digit is called a Bit. In this digital computers, details is constituted in groups of bits.

The first electronic digital computer was discovered in the late 1940s and was designed primarily for numerical calculations.

Whatever words are written in the computer, the computer converts it into binary language, that is why computers and humans communicate with each other.

Some basic examples of digital computer are personal computer, desktop, laptop, smartphone, mobile, digital watch, calculator etc.

There are mainly three parts in a digital computer, which include the following:

1. Input: Whenever the user normally types data into the device, it is known as input.
2. Processing: The data inputted by the user is processed in the internal part of the device using defined sequence.
3. Output: When the data is fully processed, the output result based on the input is shown to the user.

### Types of Digital Computer

Digital computers are machines that use binary code to store information. Binary code is a system of representing data using only the 0s and 1s that make up computer instructions. This system makes digital computers easy to understand and use.

A digital computer is a device that needs to be programmed to get its desired output.

It uses electronic technology to generate, store and process many different types of data. Based on the size and type of device, digital computers are divided into the following four categories.

type of digital computer

1. Microcomputer
2. Minicomputer
3. Mainframe computer
4. Supercomputer

#### Micro Computer

Microcomputers are commonly called personal computers. Microcomputers are computers that they use to perform normal tasks for themselves. Nowadays microcomputers are being used the most from small to big business and in their personal work.

These computers work on microprocessor. Under this, the input unit / output unit, storage unit, motherboard and CPU (Central Processing Unit) are other equipment. The size of this computer is small and at the same time its cost is also low.

The following are examples of microcomputers based on the Pentium microprocessor, IBM PC, Dell, HP, Apple Macintosh.

Microcomputers include computers or laptops, desktop computers, notebooks, handheld computers, smartphones, and tablet devices.

#### Mini Computer

A minicomputer is a medium-sized multiprocessing computer known as a mid-range computer.

It consists of two or more processors so it can share the same computer memory and peripheral devices with many users simultaneously.

It has more process capability than microcomputer but less than mainframe computer.

Mini computer is situated between mainframe computer and microcomputer as it is bigger than micro computer but smaller than mainframe computer.

Miniframe computers are mostly used in large institutions, traffic control areas, departmental billing, banks, large companies, accounting, database management, file management, business transactions and inventory management.

Examples of minicomputers – DEC PDP, VAX Series, Apple iPad, IBM’s AS/400e, Honeywell200 etc.

#### Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are generally very large in size. To keep them a separate room or separate space is needed. It is mainly used for large amount of data processing and its data store capacity is very high.

Mainframe computers are also known for a high degree of reliability. Mainframe computers are larger than micro computers and mini computers and are more powerful and their processing capacity is much faster. But these computers are not more powerful than supercomputers.

Mainframe computers are designed in such a way that hundreds or thousands of users can access it simultaneously. Also it’s means that different types of the processes can be run simultaneously.

Now, This type of computer is used in large organizations such as banking, telecom sector, big industry companies, government departments and various sectors. Mainframe computer example- IBM zSeries like IBM z15, IBM z14, IBM System z13 etc.

#### Super Computer

Supercomputer As you must have understood from its name, it works very fast. Supercomputer is the largest, fastest and most expensive computer in the world.

It is a very advanced computer and thousands of processors are present in this computer, which performs trillions of calculations per second, so its ability to work is the highest compared to other computers.

It plays a very important role in the computer industry. It can also be called a combination of several computers that do data processing in Parallel.

Supercomputers are used extensively to perform complex computer-related tasks such as scientific fields, satellite or space departments, weather forecasting and climate testing, atomic energy research, oil and gas monitoring, education sector, engineering fields, etc.

PARAM is a series of indigenous supercomputers developed by C-DAC in India.

The name of India’s first supercomputer is “PARAM 8000” and the name of the latest supercomputer made in this series is “PARAM-Siddhi AI”, which ranks India 63rd in the big list of top 524+ most heavy great supercomputers in the world level.

Examples of world’s fastest computers are Sierra (US), Sunway TaihuLight (China), Frontera (US), and Summit (US).

### Classification of Computer

Computer Classification: Computers are classified into Analog, Digital and Hybrid computers on the basis of work, size and capacity. Each category is used for its specific purpose and has its own importance.

#### analog computer

Analog computers are mainly based on voltage and current along with electrical signals and show the output continuously. Analog computers are generally slower than digital computers.

For example, thermometer, voltmeter, speedometer. These computers store data and perform calculations in a very different way than digital computers which use symbolic methods for data display.

#### Digital Computer

Digital computers are those computers that work on data in binary form ie 0 and 1 digit. Its main advantage is that they are quick and reprogrammable. Similar types of computers are currently in vogue, some examples of which are smartphones, tabs, laptops and calculators.

#### Hybrid Computer

Hybrid computers are made for the purpose of doing a particular task, these computers are more reliable and have many qualities.

It is made up of both analog and digital computer, hence it is called Hybrid Computer. Commonly used for scientific applications, airplanes, large industries and hospitals.

Some examples of this are traffic control, medical fields, weather, ultrasound machines, monitoring machines, etc.

### Features or Characteristics of Digital Computer

#### Memory Capacity:

Digital computers can store large amounts of data or information in memory and can retrieve data within a second. Data or information can be stored in memory for any time and can be retrieved or accessed back at any time, such as hard disk, solid disk, floppy disk, optical disk, etc.

#### Very Flexible:

These computers do multi-tasking without any human intervention, that is, process many tasks at once, such as printing a page during document drafting, listening to music, chatting, etc. That’s why they are very flexible and versatile.

#### Good Speed:

Digital computers work at very high speed and process all the tasks or instructions at high speed in an instant. It can solve any task or instruction in a fraction of a second.

#### Accuracy:

These devices are helpful in storing all the information data in memory which helps in getting accurate data when needed at a given time. The computer does all the exact calculations without making any mistake. In this, any mistake comes only when wrong inputs or instructions have been given by the person.

#### Diligence:

Computer can do any work continuously without getting tired. It never has any kind of weakness or fatigue, so that it can do any work continuously without any mistake or interruption.

Therefore, due to this capability of computer, there has been a lot of development in human work progress.

#### Automatic:

These devices become automatic once started. They don’t need to intervene unless something is specifically necessary.

### Components of Digital Computer

Now know, how many parts or components are there in the computer? Following are the basic components in a digital computer:-

#### Input Device

Input devices are typically the devices that are connected to the system such as mouse, keyboard, printer, microphone and scanner etc.

The user gives instructions to the system with the help of input devices and the computer takes action after understanding these instructions, after which the computer converts this input into binary language which is easy to understand by the computer.

#### CPU

The CPU is the central processing unit, which is considered the brain of the computer because it controls the entire computer system.

When the user inputs through an input device, the CPU processes it, that is, the CPU performs the computational work and then sends the result to the output device. There are many different components inside the CPU, which have different responsibilities for their work.

#### ALU

Its full form is Arithmetic Logic Unit, it is a digital circuit of computer hardware. ALU is mainly used for all Arithmetic, Logical and Mathematical calculations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

#### Control Unit

The main function of the control unit is to control the data and instructions. It manages as well as coordinates all the units of the this computer. The control unit receives instructions from memory, interprets them, and consequently sends instructions to input/output devices.

#### memory

This part of the computer is mainly used to store data, it is also called “Internal Memory”. Internal memory is divided into several locations that store instructions.

Each of these locations has a unique address and the same size. With the help of this unique address, the computer can easily read the data stored in the memory without searching the entire memory location. Whenever a program runs, the data is stored in the internal memory and remains till the end of execution.

#### Output Devices

Output devices are the devices that are connected to the computer and through this one can view and access the information on various output devices. Converts binary data in a computer into a language that the computer user can understand on the output device. The output in the computer is displayed in the form of 0 and 1 which in computer language is called Machine Language. Common examples of some output devices are hard disks, projectors, monitors, plotters, and printers.

### Use Of Digital Computer

1. It is used for mathematical calculations, computational work, spacecraft, health domain, schools, colleges, large or small organizations, factories, etc.
2. It is used almost everywhere to store photos, music, videos, applications, documents and other files.
3. Digital computers are being used to control industrial and manufacturing processes.
4. In factories, multiple tasks can be done at the same time to drive automatic machines.
5. It can store large amount of data and can retrieve the data at high speed.
7. Its processing speed is very high and performs the task within seconds.

### History of Computer

• Computer History: History of Computer Thousands of years ago ‘Abacus’ was used to calculate, which is considered to be the first computer.
• After this, many mechanical devices were invented to calculate, such as the Pascaline Calculator manufactured by Blaise Pascal. But the memory was not used in any device, due to which it was not successful.
• After that, in the early eighteenth century, Charles Babbage invented a machine named ‘Analytical Engine’ and ‘Difference Engine’, in which memory was used.
• It was from these ideas that the future of the modern computer started. Charles Babbage built the first mechanical computer, hence he is called the “father of computer”.

### Generation of Computer 1st to 5th

The history of computer is many years old. It has five main generations. There have been many technological developments in every single generation which have changed the working efficiency of the computer. The generation of computer is briefly discussed below:-

#### #First Generation of Computer

• In the early years of the computing era, the first generation of computers (1st Generation of Computer) was developed in 1940-1956, which was named “vacuum tube”.
• Earlier, with the technology of computer generation, it used to take weeks to execute a task and get the output result. Earlier punch cards were used to get the inputs and the outputs were printed out.
• An example of a 1st generation computer is ENIAC (ENIAC full form is Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).
• Also Vacuum tubes were used for memory in 1st generation of some computers. Due to the vacuum tube, these computers were larger in size, had less memory and consumed more electricity. Some examples of special first generation computers are EDSAC, UNIVAC, UNIVAC-1, IBM-701, IBM 650.

#### #Second Generation of Computer

• The second generation of computers (2nd Generation of Computer) came between 1956 and 1964. This generation of computers used transistors, which were much better than the Vaccum Tube.
• Transistors were faster, cheaper, reliable and smaller than the first generation. But for its output (punch cards and printouts) the same was used as in the first generation.
• High level language FORTRAN and COBOL were used in this generation of computers. Second generation computer examples are IBM 7094, UNIVAC 1108, Honeywell 400, CDC 1604, CDC 3600.

#### #Third Generation of Computer

• The third generation of computers (3rd Generation of Computer) came between 1964 and 1971. With the advent of the third generation, there was a lot of development in the computer field.
• In this generation of computers, integrated circuits (ICs) were used instead of transistors.
• The third generation computers were more reliable, smaller in size and faster to process than the second generation. Operating systems with high-level language were used to control this generation of computers and keyboards and monitors were used for input and output.
• Examples of third generation computers are PDP-1, PDP-5, PDP-8, ICL 2903, ICL 1900, UNIVAC 1108.

#### #Fourth Generation of Computer

• The fourth generation of computers (4th Generation of Computer) Between 1971 and 1985, VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) chip was used in place of Integrated Circuit (IC) chip in the computer, which is called “Microprocessor”.
• These were small in size, reliable and smart computers which were more powerful. It can be connected to a separate input and output device. Eventually they were able to connect to the network and the Internet developed.
• The use of VLSI made it possible to use the Central Processing Unit (CPU) on a single chip. Computers of this generation used an operating system (OS) based on a graphical user interface (GUI). It was quite simple to do arithmetic and logical work.
• Fourth generation computer examples are IBM 4341, DEC 10, STAR 1000, ZX – Spectrum, PDP 11, Macintosh, CRAY-1 (Super Computer).

#### #Fifth Generation of Computer

• Fifth Generation of Computer (5th Generation of Computer) Since 1985 till date, all the computers coming in future have been kept under fifth generation.
• The fifth generation of computers are computing devices based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). Efforts are being made to make computers of this generation intelligent by using artificial intelligence so that the tasks of Voice Recognition, Image Controlling and Parallel Processing can be done very fast and its data storage capacity is very high.
• In the fifth generation computers, the ULSIC (Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuit) chip has been used as a microprocessor in place of VLSIC.
• This new technology has significantly increased the size and performance of microprocessors compared to the fourth generation. Artificial Intelligence is an emerging branch of computer science, which explains the way computers think and act like humans.
• All high-level languages ​​such as C, C++, Window 95, Visual Basic, Java, .Net, Python, etc., are used in the fifth generation of computers. Examples of Fifth Generation of Computers Desktop, Laptop, NoteBook, UltraBook, ChromeBook, Param (Super Computer)

### In short: digital computer

Yes, friends, hope that today’s post, What is Digital Computer (What is Digital Computer) would have been liked. Along with this, you got information about types of digital computer, how many parts of computer, classification of computer, functions of digital computer etc. through this blog. Hope that the information given by me on Digital Computer Kya Hai will prove to be informative and useful for you.

As you know from this post, the present time is the era of digital computer and it is being widely used in all fields like scientific research and engineering apart from experimentation, it can be used for automated industrial processes, transportation systems and other statistical data analysis. To be done also. Digital computers work efficiently, accurately without getting tired.

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